Social Learning Theory and VoiceThread

VoiceThread on reinforcement lesson on solving systems of linear equations by graphing: https://voicethread.com/share/8533562

VoiceThread is a digital resource that can be utilized inside and outside of the classroom. Educators can create personalized videos with audio and visual aspects that can potential increase student’s motivation. VoiceThread is also a great resource for student’s creation of material. The easy to use resource can change the way students view education. Students can benefit greatly from being able to watch, listen, create and collaborate inside and outside the classroom.

The topic of my voice thread was an introduction to solving systems of linear equations by graphing. This is a great resource for students to use to reinforce their knowledge on graphing systems of equations. In the 21st century it is essential that students can utilize technology as a way to learn and “improve their practices” (ISTE for students). Utilizing technologies such as VoiceThread breaks down the walls of the classroom and makes the learning accessible anywhere, anytime. This is also a great tool to teach students accountability and responsibility for their learning. VoiceThread, Google classrooms, remind application and other educational tools are great ways to make the content available to the students anywhere and to give students the opportunity to take learning into their own hands.

According to Kivunja, technology has the potential to bridge gaps in knowledge (Kivunja, 2015). Providing students with a variety of technology engages students, breaks down the limitations of the classroom setting and encourages students to take learning into their own hands. Students use technology on a daily basis but modeling using technology as an academic tools is a way to encourage students to use digital tools responsibly. Modeling behavior, providing digital tools to encourage real world applications, academic responsibility and provoke critical thinking of material are all concepts that I incorporated into my VoiceThread.

In the popular source that I researched throughout this module, it discussed the role of the teacher. According to social learning theory, “People learn by observing the behaviors of others and the outcomes of those behaviors” (Townsend, 2011 para. 2). Having the ability to visually see the solution to a problem worked out, while also hearing the thought process that is behind solving the problem is the essential to effective learning. This idea is considered thinking out loud, or modeled problem solving. In some cases having students discover material is key, but it is also important to share what is expected and model that behavior. In my scholarly source, Deaton discussed the idea that social media provides “visual and auditory stimuli” that help students learn (Deaton, 2015 p.2). In my VoiceThread I provided an example of graphing linear equations while also thinking (out-loud) about the process and asking thought provoking questions that corresponded to what the students are able to watch. Giving access to both types of learning in an engaging digital tool increases students’ engagement and accessibility to the material.

My variation on the Genius project can benefit from the application of voice thread because it is a great way to share insight visually as well as through auditory representation. VoiceThread and other digital tools also “enable anyone to publish, students can easily use them to share or exchange the products they create using the Internet” (Kivunja, 2015 p. 34). Giving students the opportunity to explore outside the walls of the classroom and create using digital resources opens the doors for student’s creative skills to grow. In the 21st century fostering strong technological skills and creating opportunities for individualizes to produce material is essential for success.

Social learning theory-based technologies provide students with exploration opportunities that provide priceless learning experiences. Students can use various technologies inside and outside the classroom to explore, discover, create, collaborate and share different thoughts, ideas and products. Digital tools provide students with the chance to “become engaged in creating something but doing it collaboratively with other students in the class” (Laureate Education, 2015 p. 5).

VoiceThread has provided me with an additional resource that allows me to reach students with important concepts outside of the classroom. As an educator, I have struggled with students missing school, or needing additional resources outside of the classroom. With VoiceThread I am able to create example, discuss important concepts and ask thought provoking questions that students can access anywhere anytime. It also provides students with a visual and auditory resource. As an educator, this has also given my insights into additional resources my students can use to create and collaborate within the classroom and outside the classroom. Engaging students in the mathematical material is always a challenge, however integrating technology wither it is instructional or student-centered production is a method to increase students motivation to learn.

VoiceThread is also a beneficial to my growth as a professional and a learner. This tool is a great resource for professional development to share what I have learned, and to partake in conversation with others about topics I am interested in learning more about. This accessibility of this resource makes it a perfect tool to utilize in ever aspect of education, whether it is in the classroom as an educator, in the classroom as a student or in my goals of furthering my professional practices. Utilizing VoiceThread is a way for me to create “technology-enriched learning experience” (ISTE, 2008 para. 8). This enriched learning experience applies to the students in the classroom and myself as a life long learner.

VoiceThread is an engaging resource that can be used for multiple aspects of learning in a classroom. Educators can use VoiceThread as a direct instruction tool, an engaging hook to a lesson, reinforcement for concepts and a place for thought provoking questions and classroom collaboration. This digital resource has many uses and can positively impact a classroom environment. Utilizing this a variety of tools is essential in the 21st century, as fostering and supporting student-centered learning strategies is key for student success.

References

DEATON, S. (2015). SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY IN THE AGE OF SOCIAL MEDIA: IMPLICATION FOR EDUCATIONAL PRACTITIONERS. Journal Of Educational Technology, 12(1), 1-6.

International Society for technology in Education (ISTE). (2008). Standards for teachers. Retrieved from http://www.iste.org/standards/standards/standards-for-teachers

International Society for technology in Education (ISTE). (2016). Standards for Students.     Retrieved from http://www.iste.org/standards/standards/for-students-2016

Kivunja, C. (2015). The Efficacy of Social Media Technologies in Academia: A Pedagogical Bliss or Digital Fad?. International Journal Of Higher Education, 4(4), 33-44.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2015j). Social learning theories [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Townsend, L. (2011). Interpersonal- Social Learning. Retrieved from https://classroom-assessment-theory-into-practice.wikispaces.com/Interpersonal+-+Social+Learning

 

 

Constructivist Learning Theory, Teaching, and Learning

Every student in a classroom is unique. Learning styles, prior knowledge, academic level, cultural background, interests and strengths all play a role in an individual student’s learning experience. In order to effectively meet the needs of each student in the classroom, classroom instruction must be differentiated in a way that tailors to every student’s unique situation.

The constructivism learning theory is the idea that “knowledge is uniquely constructed within our own minds and based on our own experiences” (Laureate Education, 2015e p.1). This is similar to the idea behind the action of constructionism which is the educational practice built on the idea that “students need to have first hand experiences with building knowledge in order to learn effectively” (Laureate Education, 2015e p.1). In all, constructivism and constructionism focus on how people gain and retain knowledge. One building block of this learning theory is the process known as assimilation. Assimilation is the method of taking new concepts and linking it to prior knowledge building a network of information based on “existing internal cognitive structures” (Orey, 2001 para. 5). This is a very common process and is related to research regarding memory that states people need to build networks of information in order to effectively construct knowledge (Greer & Crutchfeild, 2013). Another process of retaining information is known as Accommodation. This is more commonly seen in younger children who have yet to create various schema (Laureate Education, 2015e). It is when the various experience become the first piece of knowledge to build a network. Therefore, instead of adding information to already formed networks, new networks are created to fit the specific learning experience. By assimilating and accommodating new information, the body is creating a state of equilibration, which is a balance between what you learn and what you have previously experienced. “This effort to maintain a balance, denoted by equilibration, allows for cognitive development and effective thought processes” (Orey, 2001 para. 9).

In a given classroom, every student enters with already formed networks of knowledge and it is important to allow students the opportunity to explore new concepts in relation to their prior knowledge and experiences. In order to give every student this chance, differentiating instructional methods is key. Not only is varying educational practices important, but basing in class activities on student led, discovery and exploration undertakings is essential for students building a strong foundation of understanding. In order to make this opportunity available, utilizing a variety of technology is key. Some students have different strengths, therefore opening the door for students to use various technologies to explore, discover and build understanding of concepts is a way to tailor to a student’s strength and in turn foster motivation and engagement. In addition to providing a method for students to utilizing their strengths, it also gives the ability for students to be presented with a variety of creative products which helps “sharpen their weaknesses as well” (Laureate Education, 2016 p. 3).

Currently in my teaching practices I provide at least one project based activity per marking period in order to allow students to pursue personal interests in relation to the material. This project has specific criteria based on the curriculum being covered, however is open ended in regards to resources that students are allowed to utilize. I have found that students are more creative when given room to explore and branch out academically. Promoting innovative thinking and customizing personal learning experiences are effective learning strategies in a constructivism classroom (ISTE, 2008). In math, many students talents and strong skills go unnoticed because they do not directly apply to the mathematical process, however when given open ended project based activities, students become more personally invested. I have seen students create PowerPoints, movies, drawings, paintings, presentations, online posters, and so much more. By allowing students to construct, “students build networks and customize their learning environments in ways that support the learning process” (ISTE, 2016 para. 4).

In a constructivism classroom, giving students the ability to create their own learning experience individualizes the learning process. The popular resources that I research throughout this module shared an enlightening point. Students are not blank slates that enter a classroom (Shaw, n.d.). Every single student enters the classroom with prior knowledge and personal experiences that impact their learning. Every student should be able to use their background to help construct understanding of new concepts. This resource also has numerous links and additional sources for constructing knowledge in a math classroom. Utilizing this source in my variation of the Genius Hour will allow me to give my students many websites that can help aid them in their projects. Giving students a variety of resource to pick from opens the door for more creativity and innovative thinking. My Scholarly source shares information about Web 2.0 that are useful in constructivist classrooms. “Emerging technology is characterized by greater functionality, interoperability and connectivity helps in knowledge creation through open communication and collaboration” (Paily, 2013). Utilizing these tools in education has the potential to create priceless learning experiences for every individual in the classroom. Promoting the use of Web 2.0 tools during my variation of G.H gives students more opportunities to explore, create and collaborate.

Teachers should play the role of the facilitator and students should lead activities and explore their individual curiosities (Shaw, n.d.). In a constructivist classroom setting, students are able to create their own learning experiences tailored to their own prior knowledge and readiness level. Effective educational experiences involve promoting hands on building of understanding. Utilizing various technologies and differentiating instruction give students these opportunities.

 

References:

Greer, D: d., Crutchfield, S. s., Woods, K. k. (2013). Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, Instructional Design Principles, and Students with Learning Disabilities in Computer-based and Online Learning Environments. Journal Of Education, 193(2), 41-50.

International Society for technology in Education (ISTE). (2008). Standards for teachers. Retrieved from http://www.iste.org/standards/standards/standards-for-teachers

International Society for technology in Education (ISTE). (2016). Standards for Students.   Retrieved from http://www.iste.org/standards/standards/for-students-2016

Laureate Education (Producer). (2015e). Constructionist and constructivist learning theories. [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2016c). Constructivism in practice [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Orey, M. (2001). Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved from     http://epltt.coe.uga.edu/index.php?title=Main_Page

Paily, M. m. (2013). Creating Constructivist Learning Environment: Role of “Web 2.0” Technology. International Forum Of Teaching & Studies, 9(1), 39-50.

Shaw, G. (n.d.) Social Constructivism Website: What Are Some Useful Resources? Retrieved from https://www.smore.com/5jsnu-social-constructivist-websites

Cognitive Learning Theory, Graphic Organizers, and Virtual Field Trips

Cognitive learning theory is based on how people process information. Creating networks of information is a way for students to organize knowledge and make recalling this information more manageable (Laureate Education, 2015). By implementing a virtual field trip in which students partake in an interactive video of the exploration of factoring makes the material more relatable. By providing these graphic organizers students are able to draw connections between the concepts and form a more visual memory makes recalling information easier.Students will complete the graphic organizer before working through the video. Giving students the opportunity to see and interact with the graphic organizer before the lesson gives students the chance to focus on topics that will be key throughout the activity (Pitler & Hubbell, 2012). This graphic organizer is formatted two different ways to meet the needs of diverse students. One is the concept map below, and the other is a interactive list in which can help break down the steps for students when practicing factoring.

Link to second version of graphic organizer: file:///Users/ealoverdi/Downloads/New-Mind-Map-1.html

factoring-graphic-organizer

 

Interactive Video for factoring https://www.brainpop.com/math/numbersandoperations/factoring/

References:

Laureate Education (Producer). (2015c). Cognitive learning theories [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. R., & Kuhn, M. (2012). Using technology with classroom instruction that works (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Behaviorist Learning Theory, Instructional Strategies, and Technology Tools

“Behaviorist techniques have long been employed in education to promote behavior that is desirable and discourage that which is not” (Orey, 2001para. 8). The theory of Behaviorism is based on the idea that “people’s actions are driven by a need to gain rewards or avoid punishments” (Behaviorism, n.d.). An effective teacher finds a variety of techniques that encourages positive performance. These methods can be built into everyday instructions. Educational technology is linked to the theory of behaviorism in the classroom. “Behaviorism provides a foundation for instructional technology, education has shifted to computerized-individual education which is mainly established on behaviorist methods as repetition, direct instruction, token economies, and drill and practice” (Gökmenoğlu, 2010 p. 298). The relationship between instructional strategies and behaviorism is that both are founded on creating an effective learning environment for all students. In the 21st century, technology plays an essential role in this relationship. Online digital resources have the ability to individualize instruction and help educators mold student behavior.

In the 21st century, technology has become part of daily life. Students come into the classroom with a strong knowledge of how technology is used, however utilizing it with an educational purpose is a behavior that should be taught in schools. By using a variety of reinforcement strategies within the classroom, students become aware of behavior dealing with technology that is appropriate and what behavior is unacceptable. It is critical to teach students the “responsibilities and opportunities of living, learning and working in an interconnected digital world” ( ISTE, 2016 para. 5). In the classroom behaviorism, the instructional strategies and digital tools are all interconnected. In an effort to create a productive learning environment, online tools can be used as a strategy to motivate student’s positive academic performance.

“The instructional strategy of reinforcing efforts, enhances students understanding of the relationship between efforts and achievement by addressing their attitudes and beliefs about learning” (Pitler & Hubbell, 2012 p. 57). This is an instructional strategy that I constantly use in my current teaching practices. After every assessment, my students are required to write an entry in their reflection log regarding that assessment. The reflection is an online spread sheet that the students share with me and update continuously throughout the year. After each entry I give individualized feedback to students in order to continue to promote self reflection of conceptual understanding and individual level of effort (ISTE, 2008). This is a space that allows me to address individual student’s attitudes and efforts in hopes of guiding students to understand the impact these make on their grades. In this teaching strategy “students use technology to seek feedback that informs and improves their practice and to describe their learning” (ISTE, 2016 para. 7). Providing feedback to students based on their effort is a way for me to illustrate to the students that their work ethic is not going unnoticed. This also gives me a chance to encourage desirable behaviors and praise those who are demonstrating satisfactory effort.

Another key digital resource that I would like to implement more in the future is interactive online problem solving. Resources such as www.ixl.com/math are great tools that allow students to attempt practices problems and provides immediate feedback for students. For every question the student answers correctly, their “score” increases, when the student answers the questions incorrectly, the program generates a worked out solution with a corresponding explanation of the solution. The increasing score gives students incentive to learn from their mistakes, and the explanations give the students the resources to do just that. Taking advantage of these digital tools inside and outside of the classroom gives students the chance to “create meaningful learning experiences for themselves” (ISTE, 2016 para. 5).

Through the learning resource from this week, I have gained insights into utilizing technology in the classroom as an instructional strategy to help shape the atmosphere of the learning environment. My scholarly article described changes in the theory of behaviorism as it pertains to education and gave controversial views of behaviorism in the classroom. This allowed me to see both the benefits and the drawbacks of this theory. My popular sources both illustrated examples of practical 21st century teaching practices that aid in shaping student behavior. I have learned that integrating technology as a way of reflection and individualized instruction is key in the learning process. I can apply this to my variation of the Genius Hour by allowing students the opportunity to explore a variety of online digital tools as a way to encourage discovery and meaningful application. I can also give students a chance to reflect on these findings and provide feedback about their conceptual knowledge and their overall effort and behavior. Genius hour is about students investigating a topic of their interests that can help them form a connection with the content.  Giving students these opportunities is an effective way to teach students to use digital tools as an educational resource and to think critically and creatively.

 

Reference:

Behaviorism: Overview and Practical Teaching Examples. (n.d.) Retrieved from   http://study.com/academy/lesson/behaviorism-overview-practical-teaching-examples.html

International Society for technology in Education (ISTE). (2016). Standards for students.    Retrieved from http://www.iste.org/standards/standards/for-students-2016

International Society for technology in Education (ISTE). (2008). Standards for Teachers.   Retrieved from http://www.iste.org/standards/standards/standards-for-teachers.

Gökmenoğlu, T. f., Eret, E. e., & Kiraz, E. e. (2010). Crises, Reforms, and Scientific Improvements: Behaviorism in the Last Two Centuries. Ilkogretim Online, 9(1), 292-299.

Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. R., & Kuhn, M. (2012). Using technology with classroom instruction that works (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Orey, M. (2001). Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved from http://epltt.coe.uga.edu/index.php?title= Behaviorism

EDUC 6710 Reflective Essay

The educational field has changed immensely over the years. Through this course I have been able to discover and implement various online resources that will help benefit my future students. Between Wiki sites, blogs, twitter, social bookmarking and podcasts I believe that I now have the necessary skills to use technology as an effective tool in the classroom. Through using these technologies I have found that ability to collaborate, discover, create and publish are right at my fingertips, and I have the capability to share this with my students. Podcasts is one of the resources that I have found that can easily be implemented in my classroom setting that will be able to help me reinforce concepts for all types of learners. In mathematics, giving step-by-step worked examples is a great way to break down concepts and provide extra support outside the classroom. “Video podcasts allow students to control when, where, and what they learn, as well as the pace of learning” (Kay, 2012). This opportunity fosters a sense of responsibility in each student and the instruction can be tailored to a student’s specific readiness level.

Throughout this class the importance of knowing the unique learners in the classroom has been reinforced. It is important to understand the needs of the students you are teaching in order to effectively meet those needs. For one to fully understand the learner, one must be “aware of students’ prior learning, culture, family, and community values to improve teaching and learning” (Laureate Education, 2016). Only once you know the students, can an educator begin to prepare them for post secondary schooling and the workforce. Building a strong foundation of creating, collaborating, research, critical thinking and problem solving are key in order to “learn effectively and live productively in an increasingly global and digital society” (ISTE, Standards for Students). In order to help build these skills in my classroom I plan to incorporate more technology based authentic problem solving projects. This will give my students the opportunity to work together on researching topics in order to discover and reinforce different concepts. “Modern learning is about doing authentic work in the world that can be amplified by technology. And it’s about forming networks and communities outside the physical space to support and nurture the work” (Richardson, 2015 p. 17).

Twitter is an amazing resource which I have never had experience with prior to this course. Next year I would like to incorporate twitter into my classroom. Twitter is a great way for students to become involved with class discussions outside the physical classroom. This is also a great way to get community members and families involved in discussions as well. Unfortunately, bringing social media into an educational setting does have potential risks. Students have the opportunity to post, opening up the possibility for inappropriate posts. Through discussion with colleagues I have worked a way to avoid this potential roadblock. There is an excel worksheet that can be distributed to the students online, when they want to create a post they can add the post to the excel sheet which can then be approved before being published to the site. Creating online communication with students, families and community members via Twitter helps foster student’s 21st century skills such as communication and collaboration (ISTE, Standards for Students). Integrating twitter into my classroom is a great method for me to “collaborate with students, peers, parents and community members using digital tools and resources to support student success and innovation” (ISTE, Standards for Teachers).

In order to prepare students for tomorrow’s society and workplace educators must be fostering 21st century skills in the classroom. One goal that I have set for myself in order to transform my classroom environment is to integrate Twitter. For the 2016-2017 school year, my goal is to use Twitter daily as a place to send reminders for assignments and upcoming assessments, encouragement and positive reinforcement for students who put their best efforts forward. At least once a week I would like to hold a class discussion outside the classroom. This discussion can involve community members, other teachers, administrators and parents. This is a great resource for students to collaborate, discuss and think critically outside the walls of the classroom. Another goal for next year involves Podcasts. I believe that podcasting is an amazing resource for a mathematics classroom and has the potential to truly transform my current teaching practices. Next year my goal is to involve students in the making of at least one Podcast per Unit. This is a great way to have students participate in utilizing technology create and connect with the concepts.

With these two goals I will be able to improve my ability to “communicate relevant information and ideas effectively to students, parents, and colleagues using a variety of digital age media and formats to improve and/or enhance student learning” (Laureate Education, 2015). By implementing what I have learned in this course, and continuing my education I will be more prepared to meet the needs of my diverse learners in the future. One quote has stuck with me through this course, “As educators, we must embrace technologies and innovative activities prevalent in our society to equip our learners to be strong economic innovative contributors” (Bevins, 2012 p.12).

 

References:

BEVINS, P. S., CARTER, K., JONES, V. R., MOYE, J. J., & RITZ, J. M. (2012). Producing a

21st Century Workforce. Technology & Engineering Teacher, 72(3), 8-12

ISTE. (n.d.-a) Standards for students. Retrieved November 5, 2015, from

http://www.iste.org/standards/iste-standards/standards-for-students

ISTE. (n.d.-b) Standards for teachers. Retrieved November 5, 2015, from

http://www.iste.org/standards/iste-standards/standards-for-teachers

Kay, R., & Edwards, J. (2012). Examining the Use of Worked Example Video Podcasts in

Middle School Mathematics Classrooms: A Formative Analysis. Canadian Journal Of Learning And Technology, 38(3),

Laureate Education (2015). Technology Proficiencies. Retrieved June 23, 2016

https://class.waldenu.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/USW1/201640_04/1_Standard_Documents/1_Current_Documents/MSED/MSED_RWRCOEL_Technology_Proficiencies.pdf

Laureate Education (2016). Diversity Proficiencies. Retrieved June 23, 2016, from https://class.waldenu.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/USW1/201640_04    /1_Standard_Documents/1_Current_Documents/MSED/Standards_MSED_Program_Prof_Educator_Success.

Richardson, W. (2015). From master teacher to master learner. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree

Press

 

Blogging in the Classroom

I have struggled to think of ways to use a blog in my math classroom. In my current teaching practices I stress the importance of self-refection in order to grow as a learner. My students create a reflection log using Google Sheets. They each share this document with me and I am able to see their reflections and comment back to them individually. This is a great method to continue communication with each student. As I researched, it became clear to me that this activity could be greatly enhanced by having each student create a blog. Blogging opens up the door for students to “create original work as a means of personal of group expression” (ISTE, 2015).

High school students are already familiar with online discussions and creating one for my math classroom has the potential to spark engagement among the students. “Forums provide an alternative channel of communication between students and educators” (Tucker, 2014 p. 169). Communication is key for students’ success. Blogging is one method to increase interaction between the educator and each individual student and between peers as well. Utilizing technology that students use in their daily lives “promotes student reflection using collaborative tools to reveal and clarify students’ conceptual understanding and thinking, planning and creative process”( ISTE, 2015). Learning from each other’s mistakes, sharing advice, asking questions and sharing words of encouragement is one way to build relationships and strengthen the supportive environment of the classroom. It also gives students the chance to “collaborate, and publish with peers, experts or others employing a variety of different medias”(ISTE, 2015). Blogs could also be used in my math classroom for students to post real life connections.

In mathematics, students always wondering how the concepts relate to their daily lives, future careers or potential endeavors. Using blogs in order to research how others are using math in their lives gives students the opportunity to take learning into their own hands. With this tool, students would be able to research and reflect on the information they found and share that knowledge with their peers. Each student would then have the opportunity to “pursue their individual curiosities and become active participants in the setting of their own educational goals” (ISTE, 2015).

There are many methods in which educators can incorporate blogging into their lessons. Will Richardson stated that, “One of the biggest potentials of Weblogs is the ability to create spaces where students can collaborate with others online” (Richardson, 2010 p. 23). As a mathematics teacher I am still learning the different ways to implement blogging into my classroom activities. What type of activities do you use your blog for?

References:

Richardson, W. (2010). Blogs, wikis, podcasts, and other powerful web tools for classrooms (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

(n.d.-a). ISTE standards for students. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from http://www.iste.org/standards/iste-standards/standards-for-students

ISTE. (n.d.-b). Standards for teachers. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from http://www.iste.org/standards/iste-standards/standards-for-teachers

Tucker, S. Y. (2014). Transforming pedagogies: Integrating 21st century skills and Web 2.0 technology. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 166–173. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases